As the world’s urban population is expected to double in 2050, the Government of Indonesia tries to perceive the issue as an emerging transformative opportunity rather than seeing it as an obstacle that constantly hindering the development. Urbanization that is well managed could bring vast positive benefits into urban innovativeness by taking advantages of the nature of urbanization as the engine of sustained economic growth, social and cultural development. To achieve this, the government needs to take a full account on building the sustainable and socially inclusive urban development to tackle the persistence of multiple forms of poverty, inequality, and environment degradation that are still far from adequately addressed.  Housing and settlement becomes the center attention of the national urban development agenda as they are correlated directly to the urbanization—when the provision of housing at large is failing, the growth of slums urban sprawl would mostly increase.

This proves that the issue of housing and human settlement shouldn’t be heavily relied to one specific sector but rather encourage gaining insight among diverse perspectives from multi discipline of knowledge. To succeed, we also need to adopt the decentralization approach to foster the networks as the knowledge hub and strengthen the collaboration among the stakeholders. The government saw the urgent needs to create a bridge that would help connect the partnership with the international organization to assist the capacity building for the national and local governments, communities, and private sectors in solidifying the strategic plan in building and developing the inclusive,  livable and  sustainable housing and human settlements, especially in the urban setting.   

The government of Indonesia then started to be actively presence in global agenda, one of them being involved in United Nation Conference on Human Settlements, Habitat II, held in Istanbul, Turkey in 1996. The Habitat II Conference adopted the Habitat Agenda as the commitment by the country members to improve the living conditions in world’s cities. The agenda focused on realizing the adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlement in an urbanizing world.  The government of Indonesia has adopted the agenda by integrating it into the development plan.  The National Committee of Agenda Habitat II was then established through the Presidential Decree No. 69/2001 to help the mainstreaming of the Habitat Agenda, undergo the monitoring and evaluation of the five- year implementation that later would be reported in to The Country Report.

Following the evaluation of the five-year implementation of Habitat Agenda, the government of Indonesia considered to maintain active participation as a member of UN Habitat as it was essentially in line with the national development goals and objectives to achieve the sustainable urban settlement development. Further, UN also planned a high-level meeting, the Governing Meeting, which could provide more opportunities to take to support the national development plan. The government of Indonesia decided to establish the National Secretariat of Habitat Indonesia in 2008 through the joint decree between the Ministry of Housing and Ministry of Public Works Indonesia to continue the legacy of the former National Committee of Agenda Habitat II .The National Secretariat of Habitat Indonesia mainly functions foster the inter-ministerial collaboration networks with the partners and other related stakeholders to scale up the depth of knowledge and the level of cooperation in providing the better housing and settlements in Indonesia, both in short and long term.  

Indonesia's involvement in the Habitat Agenda, particularly since 2016, has been increasingly gaining appreciation from UN after actively contributing as the host country for The Third Preparatory Committee Meeting of Habitat III (Prepcom 3) in July 2016 as the final session before carrying out the Habitat III Conference held in Quito, Ecuador In October 2016 to agree on the New Urban Agenda (New Urban Agenda / NUA). Besides contributing in technical aspect, Indonesia has also significantly engaged and contributed to the drafting of the NUA.

To date, Indonesia, through the partnership being established and fostered by the National Secretariat of Habitat Indonesia, is continuously working to realize the implementation of sustainable and adequate urban settlement development in accordance with the adoption of NUA.